Saturday, September 21, 2019
White Supremacy Essay In the aftermath of the election victory of Barack Obama, white supremacists rushed to online discussion forums to vent anger and disbelief that voters had chosen an African-American candidate as the next president of the United States. The Anti-Defamation League, which monitors and exposes extremist activity and rhetoric, said anger among white supremacists and other right-wing extremists in response to Obamas victory, resulted in an avalanche of vitriolic ranting postings on racist Web sites. At one point, the chatter so overloaded the server of the most popular white supremacist internet forum, Stormfront, which was temporarily shutdown. The notion that racism is a violation of human rights is not a new one, as those who have experienced it effects would testify. The ground-breaking progress gained by the civil rights movement of the 1960s in the United States has steadily eroded over the past decade, and the issues and incidents of racism as well as anti-Semitism, homophobia, and violence against women are ones that need to be addressed with increasing urgency. While the courts are more and more frequently relying on civil rights laws to prosecute racially motivated violence, the common abuses of basic human rights are often overlooked. In fact, the encroachment of white supremacist ideologies into the social fabric of our politics, our institutions, and our laws means that intolerance 1. is becoming the rule of the day, and the overt violation of the persons and property of individuals and groups is not only easily accepted, but part of the status quo. America has moved into a new era of white supremacy. The new tactics used by white supremacists and far right organizations must be exposed so that we can work together to mitigate their effectiveness. This includes a discussion of the relationship between three converging and ever-growing factionsthe ultra-conservatives, religious fundamentalists, and the far right. In this context, racism cannot stand alone as the sole antagonist of human rights violations. The victims of white supremacist ideologies and politics include immigrants, gays and lesbians, Jews, and women, as well as people of color. From the ranks of homophobes, anti-abortionists, racists, anti-Semites, and those who are simply afraid of a fast-changing world, white supremacists find willing allies in their struggle to control Americas destiny. Hate groups cannot be dismissed as a more complex than the virulence of a few fringe fanatics. With the breathless way the media covers hate groups, it is sometimes easier to characterize them simply as misfits or extremists, rather than acknowledge them as part of the larger problem of widespread racism, anti-Semitism, and homophobia. FBI statistics report that 65 percent of Americas hate crimes are committed by whites against blacks. A good portion of such hate crimes are what we call move-in violence, when neighborhoods, schools, churches, or jobs are finally integrated 2. 30 years after the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Terror over the visibility of the lesbian and gay movement lays behind the numerous hate crimes against gays and lesbians (and their allies) the fastest-growing hate crime category in the country. Some of the haters, living on the United States borders, are petrified at the thought that brown hordes of Mexicans, Chinese, or Haitians may swarm over them if they cease their militant rhetoric and violence toward these immigrants. If they live near Native American reservations, the aim of their violence is to challenge the few remaining treaty rights granted native peoples. Other white supremacists want to save the white race by controlling the behavior of white womenthey attack interracial couples, lesbians, and feminists. They join the anti-abortion movement, believing they can prevent white women from getting legal abortions. Racist far right organizations have been quick to glorify anti-abortion violence, making it yet another hot issue to fuel the fires of the white revolution. Hate groups have decided that they are no longer willing to wait for the white revolution, the violent backlash against human rights movements. They want a fast solution before, as they put it, the white race is extinct. These fanatics are terrorists who use bombs, murder, arson, and assaults in their genocidal war. Some skinheadsfor example, the Fourth Reich Skins arrested a few years ago in Los Angeles or the Aryan National Front, convicted of murdering homeless people in Alabama are in the vanguard of this street-level violence. Meanwhile, older survivalists like Randy Weaver, who was acquitted of killing a federal marshall in an Idaho firefight in 1992, 3.are barricaded in mountain shelters with stockpiles of weapons, awaiting the final Armageddon. Impressionable, often alienated people, both young and old, are natural recruits for this movement. They bring new energy and a willingness to display their hatred aggressively. They also expand the influence of the white supremacist movement, into the anti-abortion movement, into the anti-gay movement, into the English only movement, opening new avenues for the expression of hate. In the 21st century, the image of organized hate is rapidly changing. It is no longer the exclusive domain of white men over 30. It is becoming younger, meaner and more violent. Many people join the movement as teenagers, including a remarkable number of young women. This new and dangerous increase accounts for nearly one-third of the membership of some hate groups. The increase in the number of women, coupled with a strategic thrust to reform the public image of hate groups, has expanded womens leadership. These new recruits do not fit the stereotypical image of wives on their husbands arms. In fact, many of them are college-educated, very sophisticated, and display skills usually found among the rarest of intellectuals in the movement. Of particular concern in this early 21st century is a continuing convergence of sections of the white supremacist movement with the radical Christian Right, as represented by Pat Robertson, and nationalist ultra-conservatives, as represented by the crackpot Tea Party members and conservative Republicans such as Rick Santorum. This alliance is between religious determinists who think that ones degree of Christianity determines oneÃ¢â¬â¢s future, economic determinists who see themselves in a 4.war of the haves against the have-nots, and biological determinists for whom race is everything. All believe they are in battle to save Western civilization (white Europeans) from the ungodly and the unfit (people of color, gays and lesbians, and Jews). What many Americans fail to realize is that, increasingly, white people are being literally scared out of their wits by demagogues, who crystallize for them their fears of people of color, lesbians and gays, the government, the media, welfare mothers, immigrants, the economy, health care, and the list goes on. The fact that race relations in the United States are usually presented as a black/white model disguises the complexity of color, the brutality of class, and the importance of religion and sexual identity in the construction and practice of white supremacy. This simplistic model, which fails to convey many of the important aspects of white supremacy, cannot specifically explain how white supremacy influences American culture and politics. White supremacy is an ideology that manipulates US politics and affects all relations in American society. It is sustained by rigid ideological categories. The construction of racial categories, although varying greatly over time, has always been based on the economic, social, and political aspirations of people of European descent. Throughout European history, racial definitions have been based on lineage, characteristics, skin hue, and religion. At the present time, there are not safe places for the victims of this type of violence to turn. No homeless shelters, no womens shelters, and often not even 5. police departments offer them support. The first step in building these resources is to recognize the magnitude of the problem so that human rights activists can come together to offer help and support to those outside the majority rule. A concerted, prolonged effort to teach young people about the true impact of white supremacy and its prevalence in American society is fundamental to breaking the cycle. To ignore this issue is to build intolerance into the next generation. An understanding of the historical and institutional effects of racism and the other isms that dominate our culture and society is vital to understanding present bigotry and abuse. In conclusion, when we recognize that racism, homophobia, sexism, anti-Semitism, and xenophobia flow from the same spring, and that they permeate every aspect of the lives of all Americans, we can then take steps together to make the United States a place that respects and honors the dignity of all people. 6. A Childs Tale By Gloria A. Loftin Let me tell you a tale my child of blue and grey of a world gone wild Let me tell you a tale my child of men in hoods and capes of hearts full of rage and hate Let me tell you a tale my child of men of god of greed and wealth Let me tell you a tale my child of peace and hope for all the world Let me tell you a tale my childÃ'Å½
Friday, September 20, 2019
history and structure of the travel and tourism industry Introduction Tourism is seen as one of the main industries in the world. The World Travel and Tourism Council (2001) indicated that tourism creates more than ten percent of the global economic output and 1 in 10 jobs worldwide. Tourism starts with the wealthy, with images of prestigious visits to seaside resorts and spas, Grand Tours and the activities of business enterprisers such as Thomas Cook (Towner, 1995). This paper describes the history and structure of the travel and tourism industry, the influence of local and national governments and international agencies, local and national economic policy, the effects of supply and demand on the travel and tourism industry and the positive and negative impacts of tourism. History Based on my perception, I would categorize the history of travel tourism industry in three different time bands as follows: Before 1945 1945-1979 1980 to current day Before 1945 In ancient times and approximately till the end of the 16th century people were living in agricultural communities was stationary, seldom moving from the local area and rural community. Even with the beginning of the industrial revolution, which was making a slow start in the 18th century in urban and factory development, a richer elite class alone enjoyed leisure and travel, while the workers worked in situ. Indeed as industrialization got under way leisure time or holidays where they existed tended to decrease (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997) Prior to the 1950s, tourism was an industry which was inconsistent; hotels, transport operators, tour operators, travel agents, all tended to work separately. Hotels were mainly in the business to sell bed nights. Railways and airlines were in the business to sell seats, Travel agents, were selling travel and holidays however in each case they tended to work very much independently. Up until 1946, i.e. the period between the world wars, much of international travel was for the privileged, wealthy and elite groups in society. Thomas Cook introduced the first package tour in 1841, but in fact by that time the railways (The first passenger railway (Liverpool and Manchester) opened in 1830) themselves were offering excursion trips, for a traffic which they had not originally expected to carry. The first objective had been carriage of freight, and secondly the provision of faster transport for the current stagecoach travelers at far from cheap prices. The popularity of cheap excursion fares for special events was not expected (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997) 1945-1979 If we look at the year 1945 as the year in which the development of the main growth in the tourism industry started, we can construct some general explanation concerning to the changes which one can differentiate in the tourism industry. From the mid-1950s onwards, mainly in the UK, the development of tour operators started changing the character of the industry from individual business activities to more integrated activities. Hotels, for example, were beginning to see customers as wanting a range of services rather than simply buying accommodation. So hotels began to develop shopping arcades and later to offer secretarial centers in order to increase the spend of guests within the hotel complex. Transport operators, particularly in the airline business, saw the sale of transport services as being integral to a much wider need. Airlines offered insurance and accommodation booking for travelers (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997) From 1950 onwards a combination of factors, such as increase in free time availability, increase in paid holidays, improvement of package tours, and growth in air transport all combined to offer a wider possible holiday-taking market. This market was different regarding socioeconomic groups from the pre-1950 era. 1980 to current day By the 1980s several airlines were offering full travel services such as arrangements for holidays, medical services, hiring car, etc. By 1990 the formation of the tourism industry, especially in the United Kingdom and Europe, was effected by the development of a number of very big companies. In the USA, American anti-trust laws discouraged, if not prohibited, the development of large integrated companies. The experience of American in operational tour has been very different from Europe, mainly compared with the United Kingdom (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997). Air travel improved even more rapidly. Nevertheless, this is only piece of the story, as nonscheduled traffic (charter services) increased considerably as well. Making up an estimated 18 per cent of total movement by the 1980s and 50 per cent or more on European routes, where the charter traffic took over the greater part of the holiday movement, as tour operators developed their own services (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997) Future The tourism business is likely to make important help to global economic development in the twenty first century. The cultural trade and understanding that is brought about through tourism is causing a more peaceful and internationalized universal society. Besides contributing to the expansion and renovation of local economies and communities, tourism development is playing an important role in both enhancing education and improving the position of the tourism business aimed at nurturing the next generation of those ready to take on the tourism business. The Structure of Travel Tourism Industry This is the Leipers model: There are 5 key elements of a tourism system Departing Travelers Traveler Generating Region Transit Route Region Tourist Destination Region Returning Travelers The first is the tourist (the human component), the next 3 components are geographical and organizational and relate to transport, tourist activities and the tourism industry which offers services, goods and facilities for tourists. The last is self explanatory. And the environment: Economic, Technological, Physical, Political, Socio-cultural, legal, etc. There are some contemporary influences: Changing actions and motivations of markets Changing patterns of tourist flows Require for planned tourism expansion Force for sustainable tourism expansion Concern for social, cultural and economic impacts of tourism The influence of local and national governments and international agencies The position of government is an essential and multipart side of travel and tourism industry, involving policies. State involvement in the trade is a fairly recent practice for central government. In general the state recognizes that the duties of the public sector must cover such matters as health, safety, fair trading and consumer interests and infrastructure in transport such as roads, railways and ports. These are all matters of direct concern to the resident population. There is a mixed record in the provision of leisure facilities, environmental protection and conservation which includes responsibility for the unique cultural heritage, an important part of Europes visitor attractions (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997). The state tourism agency, tourist board or government department will have an important role to play in advising on the strategy, offering opportunities to consult and cooperate with a dispersed private sector, and preparing a destination marketing strategy based on an identification of the appropriate markets and their needs and wishes (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997). Based on periodic surveys of the government role by the WTO, the OECD and individual countries, the principal functions of a Ministry of Tourism or of agencies under government control can be summarized as: Research, statistics and planning. Marketing. Development of tourism resources. Regulation, including trade regulation. Training and education. Facilitation/liberalization. Local governments At the local level the regional or local authority has a role similar to that of the central government and in many ways a more comprehensive and important one. Indeed, in the early days of mass travel stimulated by the growth of the railway network, public sector intervention in tourism was solely at the local level. There were no national tourism organizations. The growth of large resorts, pioneered in Britain at the main seaside canters, encouraged the development of local tourism administrations to carry out the responsibilities of the host destination (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997). International organizations There are a number of international bodies, both governmental and nongovernmental, with tourism interests. Government bodies reflect the national governments interest in, and political will regarding, tourism intervention. In the industrialized countries, the tourism priority tends to be low. Because of the wide range of tourism activity the number of organizations with some concern or responsibility is great, but coordination and often cooperation as at the national level is weak. Furthermore, consultation with industry and operating sectors is often inadequate, as the sectors voice is weak. The main sector industry bodies inevitably present the case of their own trade, sometimes as in modes of transport in a competitive situation. Thus the collective tourism approach is hard to organize and sustain, even when cooperation at the operating level is effective (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997). United Nations World Tourism Organization The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO/OMT) is a specialized agency of the United ?Nations and the leading international organization in the field of tourism. It serves as a ?global forum for tourism policy issues and a practical source of tourism know-how (UNWTO 2007:1).? The World Tourism Organization plays a role in promoting the development of responsible, ?sustainable and universally accessible tourism, paying particular attention to the ?interests of developing countries?. The Organization encourages the implementation ?of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, with a view to ensuring that member ?countries, tourist destinations and businesses maximize the positive economic, ?social and cultural effects of tourism and fully reap its benefits, while minimizing its ?negative social and environmental impacts (www.wikipedia.org). The WTO has made efforts recently to strengthen its links with commercial and non-government partners through its system of affiliate membership which should help in the provision of practical guidance and as a basis for cooperative action (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997). Impact of political change on the travel and tourism industry Tourism growth in many countries has not been this high, in particular those countries were faced with a range of political unstableness that have made happen to hold back development in tourism. The political aspects of tourism are interwoven with its economic consequencesÃ¢â¬ ¦tourism is not only a continuation of politics but an integral part of the worlds political economy. In short, tourism is, or can be, a tool used not only for economic but for political means (Edgell, 1990). IRAN Tourism in Iran before the accession of the theocracy was characterized by a significant numbers of visitors traveling to Iran for its diverse attractions, boasting cultural splendors and a diverse and beautiful landscape suitable for a range of activities. Tourism declined dramatically during the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s but has subsequently revived. Since the Iranian revolution in 1979, the majority of visitors to Iran have been religious pilgrims and businesspeople. Official figures do not distinguish between those traveling to Iran for business and those coming for pleasure, and they also include a large number of Diaspora Iranians returning to visit their families in Iran or making pilgrimages to holy Shia sites near Mashhad and elsewhere. Despite the international tensions, the government continues to project strong rises in visitor numbers and tourism revenue over the forecast period, and to talk of projects to build an additional 100 hotels, for example, to expand its currently limited stock. In the early 2000s the industry still faced serious limitations in infrastructure, communications, regulatory norms, and personnel training. In late 2003 there were about 640 hotels in Iran and around 63,000 beds. Officials state that Iran has in recent years earned about US$1bn a year from tourism. Iran currently ranks 68th in tourism revenues worldwide. Iran with attractive natural and historical sites is rated among the 10 most touristic countries in the world. Close to 1.8% of national employment is generated in the tourism sector which is slated to increase to 10% in the next five years. Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, a poor public image in some parts of the world, and absence of efficient planning schemes in the tourism sector have all hindered the growth of (www.wikipedia.org). CHINA After Maos death, one of the most senior officials who had advocated private plots in the early 1960s, Deng Xiaoping, initiated gradual market reforms that abolished the communes and collectivized industries of Mao, replacing them with the free-market system. Dengs reforms vastly improved the standard of living of the Chinese people, the competitiveness of the Chinese economy, and caused China to become one of the fastest growing and most important economies in the world. It also led to one of the most rapid industrializations in world history. For this achievement he is sometimes known as The Venerated Deng. As a result of Dengs reforms, China is widely regarded as a returning superpower. Tourism in China has greatly expanded over the last few decades. The emergence of a newly rich middle class and an easing of restrictions on movement by the Chinese authorities are both fueling this travel boom. China has become one of the worlds most-watched and hottest outbound tourist markets. The world is on the cusp of a sustained Chinese outbound tourism boom. China is the worlds fourth largest country for inbound tourism. The number of overseas tourists was 55 million in 2007. Foreign exchange income was 41.9 billion U.S. dollars, the worlds fifth largest in 2007. The number of domestic tourists totaled 1.61 billion, with a total income of 777.1 billion yuan. According to the WTO, in 2020, China will become the largest tourist country and the fourth largest for overseas travel. In terms of total outbound travel spending, China is currently ranked fifth and is expected to be the fastest growing in the world from 2006 to 2015, jumping into the number two slot for total travel spending by 2015 (www.wikipedia.org). The effects of supply and demand on the travel and tourism industry Most studies modeling the demand for tourism have either used visitor arrivals or tourism earnings as a dependent variable (Narayan, 2002). Tourism demand is base on which all tourism related business decisions eventually rest. Companies and governments as a point incase, tour operators, hotels, airlines, and leisure facility providers are interested in the demand for their products by tourists. The accomplishment of many businesses depends completely on the status of tourism demand, and final management collapse is pretty often because of the collapse to meet market demand. Influencing Factors As we all experience the change around us the questions arises how these developments will have an impact on tourism demand. To name just a few categories: Economy (e.g. from BIP over exchange rates to perceived risk of loosing the job) Politics (e.g. the enlargement of the EU, taxation, environment) Crisis and threats (e.g. terrorism, epidemic diseases, earth quakes) Demographic Change (e.g. age structure, migration, educational level) Technology (e.g. transport, communication, information) In addition we have to take into account the influences coming from general changes in consumer attitudes and, finally, the tourism industry itself, of course influencing the demand side of tourism (e.g. standardization of products, information channels, (over) capacities and price strategies). All these factors are linked to each other (Lohmann 2004). How can these factors have an impact? Holiday demand is driven by needs, motives, and expectations, its realization depends on the individual economic situation and the freedom to travel. Thus: External factors may have an impact on tourism demand by affecting the ability to travel (freedom, time, money, fitness) and the motivation to do so. Consumer Behavior is not a reaction on a single factor but on the whole set of influencing external factors. In addition it is driven by internal factors (e.g. motives, abilities etc.). Thus, the impact of a change in a single external factor is limited Most of the external factors seem to be in favor for a sound development of tourism demand in Europe in the years to come. However, there are no signs for a general boom (Lohmann 2004). Supply While many tourism studies are focused on the demand side of tourism that is, the tourist, the supply side of the industry is often overlooked. Supply is seen as being modeled by five independent components: attractions, transportation, services, information and promotion. Most important component is the tourism attraction (Gunn, C. A. 1997). The supply of recreation and tourism is a complex combination of natural amenities, recreational sites, access, and private sector business activity which is influenced by an array of factors that act to provide opportunities that satisfy leisure-based travel demands. Measures of recreational site density that account for both physical/geographic size and population, or social capacity are used as key explanatory variables in models of tourism dependence (Marcouiller, Prey, 2004). The Positive and Negative Social and Environmental Impacts of Tourism The range impacts of Tourism include economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts. Impacts could be negative and positive, but should never be undervalued. The conception of sustainability is factored into these tourism impacts, when the size of the impacts turns out to be large enough to intensely change socio-cultural, environmental and economic areas of a tourist destination. Socially tourism has a great influence on the host societies. Tourism can be both a source of international amity, peace and understanding and a destroyer and corrupter of indigenous cultures, a source of ecological destruction, an assault of peoples privacy, dignity, and authenticity. Here are possible positive effects of tourism: Developing positive attitudes towards each other Learning about each others culture and customs Reducing negative perceptions and stereotypes Developing friendships Developing pride, appreciation, understanding, respect, and tolerance for each others culture Increasing self-esteem of hosts and tourists Psychological satisfaction with interaction So, social contacts between tourists and local people may result in mutual appreciation, understanding, tolerance, awareness, learning, family bonding respect, and liking. Residents are educated about the outside world without leaving their homes, while their visitors significantly learn about a distinctive culture. Local communities are benefited through contribution by tourism to the improvement of the social infrastructure like schools, libraries, health care institutions, internet cafes, and so on. Besides, if local culture is the base for attracting tourists to the region, it helps to preserve the local traditions and handicrafts which maybe were on the link of the extinction. For example in Uzbekistan, particularly in such famous regions as Samarqand, Buhara, and Horezm tourists contribute significantly to the preservation of traditional handcrafting wood carving, hammered copper work, handmade silk and carpets, and of course to preservation and maintenance of architectural and historical monuments. Since Uzbekistan proclaimed its independence in 1991 many museums and monuments were renovated or opened to promote the national culture and traditions. Growing interest in this culture makes the local people proud of their way of life. On the other side tourism can increase tension, hostility, and suspicion. Claims of tourism as a vital force for peace are exaggerated. Indeed there is little evidence that tourism is drawing the world together (Robinson 1999). In this context economic and social impacts on the local community depend on how much of the incomes generated by tourists go to the host communities. In most all-inclusive package tours more than 80% of travelers fees go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not to local businessmen and workers. On the other hand large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors and rarely employ local staff for senior management positions, preventing local farmers and workers from reaping the benefit of their presence. Tourism has the power to affect cultural change. Successful development of a resource can lead to numerous negative impacts. Among these are overdevelopment, assimilation, conflict, and artificial reconstruction. While presenting a culture to tourists may help preserve the culture, it can also dilute or even destroy it. The point is to promote tourism in the region so that it would both give incomes and create respect for the local tradition and culture. There are also both negative and positive impacts of tourism on the local ecology. Tourism often grows into mass-tourism. It leads to the over consumption, pollution, and lack of resources. However, from the ecological point of view tourism is often more acceptable and preferable than any other industrial production, as it is environmentally friendlier (Batir Mirbabayev, Malika Shagazatova, 2007). Conclusion Tourism is widely believed to be the most rapidly growing industry in both developing and developed countries, consider tourism as one means for creating new jobs and reducing unemployment in different regions (Balali, 2009). The history of tourism is one of lumpy expansion, periods of massive growth interrupted by periods of recessions and stagnation (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997). International travel and tourism is the backbone of globalization and enriches the world in many ways: It promotes economic growth, increases trade, advances development, and creates higher disposable incomes. It also strengthens communities, and, by bringing together people from diverse regions and backgrounds, advances the goals of peace and global understanding. These benefits hold true for developing, emerging, and industrialized countries, and they provide a major platform on which other industries can build (Gross, 2007).
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Role of Faith and the Nechung Oracle in Tibetan Culture In the United States, we pride ourselves on our objectiveness, our ability not to get caught up in religious fervor. We often think that people who believe deeply in their religion and involve it in all aspects of their lives are "fanatics"Ã¢â¬âthat they are somehow beneath us, less deserving of our respect. We are taught almost from birth that the scientific method is the only way to look at the world. We learn the steps of the scientific method (observation, hypothesis, test, and theory) in elementary school. This philosophy then colors how we think of everything after that. Faith is seen as an undesirable quality and has no place in our culture. Nothing is real unless it can be proven. In Tibet, on the other hand, the Tibetan people have a profound respect for their religion. Buddhism permeates every aspect of their lives. As Harrer says in Seven Years in Tibet, The daily life of Tibetans is ordered by religious belief. Pious texts are constantly on their lips; prayer wheels turn without ceasing; prayer flags wave on the roofs of houses and the summits of mountain passes; the rain, the win, all the phenomena of nature, the lonely peaks of the snow-clad mountains bear witness to the universal presence of the gods whose anger is manifested by the hailstorm, and whose benevolence is displayed by the fruitfulness and fertility of the land. (Harrer, 1953 p 187) Religion had a part in everything from politics to when they were allowed to change clothing for the season. One day the summer season was officially declared to have begun, and summer clothes might be worn. One had no right to leave off oneÃ¢â¬â¢s furs when one wanted to. Every year, after considerations of the omens, a day was fixed on which the nobles and monks put on summer dressÃ¢â¬ ¦Summer dress must be worn from that date only. (Harrer, 1953 p182) Because religion is such an integral part of their lives, Buddhism unites the Tibetan people. I propose that the State
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Energy Crisis Energy is important to our nation for many reasons. It is a key economic driver. It offers new market opportunities for business. Providing energy to our nation has been an exciting challenge in recent years. Many changes have been constant throughout that period. The past tells Americans that predicting the specifics of the energy future for our nation with great accuracy would be unlikely. Americans get their energy from different types of resources. With all the different resources Americans believe that an energy crunch shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen. The crisis is a nationwide energy discontent in which natural gas rates have soared to the highest level in 15 years, and OPEC has slashed its oil output again to keep prices up. Most Americans know they are the ones who are mostly to blame for the energy crisis. Americans' greed drives us to demand more space and privacy, more power and speed, and more comfort and ease. Satisfying these demands requires the burning of more fossil fuels. Due to the large amounts of energy that Americans use, the demand for more energy resources are becoming low. The energy crisis in California could spread throughout the United States unless answers to these problems of energy consumption can be solved. If the energy crisis should happen to spread throughout the United States, there would be a large demand for more energy resources. More and more efforts are being attempted for finding new types of energy resources for the long term. Large amounts of money are being spent on different types of energy. Prices will continue to grow if there is a shortage of energy. Americans will have to pay more for energy in the years to come if the oil and natural gas prices continue to go up, due to lack of oil drilling spots. Long term energy problems will be solved with all the new types of energy out there. Early in the 1970s, natural gas was thought to be a declining fuel. Outdated and counter productive pricing regulations handcuffed the industry. The picture today is decidedly different. Natural gas is being counted on to fuel most of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic expansions way into the 21st century. The regulations of the 1970s have been replaced by a restructured gas market, and the industry has responded. The demand for gas is growing faster than anyone predicted. The United States economy is also growing faste... ...ergy. Oil and natural gas will still be out there for energy sources in the future. Many Americans will probably find ways to deal with the energy crunch, by using new efficient resources. Americans hesitate to make detailed predictions about the energy future much past the present. To secure energy for the future cooperating with foreign governments and institutions to develop energy sector laws would help. Policies and regulatory processes for setting standards and opening markets, could help the energy crisis in the United States. Also, promoting energy production in the future in ways that respect health and environmental problems. Many experts agree that consumers who invest in things like better insulation and windows to make their homes more efficient will see the cheapest bills in the future. In conclusion the past years have been exciting for energy markets, energy policy, and energy supply and demand. Many people have made significant progress in understanding the importance of a basic resource, which they once took for granted. Americans can expect to have better tools for the future of energy and to be better at identifying and addressing these challenges.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence can be proven in a multitude of ways. However, several introductory caveats are in order. First, by Ã¢â¬Å"God,Ã¢â¬ we mean the traditional Christian concept of an all-powerful and wise creator. Second, the project of Ã¢â¬Å"provingÃ¢â¬ anything is logic or science is nearly impossible. Even the best laid logical plans and the most iron clad arguments can be torn to pieces by a skilled logician. Such a state does not invalidate the proofs in question, just merely that the language of the discipline is such that any logical design can be manipulated and refuted by one who ardently desires it be refuted. What is being dealt with here is that faith in the God of the Christians is not an irrational, Ã¢â¬Å"blind faith,Ã¢â¬ but one that is eminently reasonable and defensible on metaphysical, logical and scientific grounds. 1. The proof of Aristotle, used by Thomas Aquinas later, is the Ã¢â¬Å"hylomorphicÃ¢â¬ proof and is very important to medieval thoughts about God and the nature of his existence. The theory centers around the distinction between first, form and matter which, second, corresponds to action and passion, or act and potency. The form of an object is it in act, or developing towards its natural telos, or end. The matter is passive, that which has non being, that which still needs to be developed. But the nature of reality is such that as one rises in knowledge, the form dominates over the matter. Mathematics, for example, is almost purely form, with only a minuscule amount of material stuff. But what is the origin of such things? Only the world of pure form, and hence, pure act, that is, God. God is pure act, pure perfection with no more need for development. It is the form of Forms that renders unchanging knowledge possible. The matter within its formal shell is not nly passive, but accidental, in that it is only the generator of sensations, colors, etc. But such things cannot exist without a substratum (there is no red, without it being a red something), and hence, form is the object of knowledge, not the matter, or the Ã¢â¬Å"accidentÃ¢â¬ of the object. But knowledge only sees form, never matter. Matter might present form in the guise of a sensate object, but logical and mathematics does not work this way, these are separated from matter. Hence, the more universal the knowledge, the less matter. Hence, the ultimately form of knowledge is Pure form, hence God (Owens, 1980: 20-25). 2. Similarly, the proof of St. Augustine from the point of view of unchanging truth. Any such unchanging truth must have a cause. The truths of mathematics or logic never change regardless of time or place, and hence, there must be an entity in existence who could have brought such a world into being. Such an entity must never change or alter its being in any way, and hence, must be perfect (the only need for change is to improve, if no need for change, then there is no need for improvement). Therefore, God exists (Augustine, 1996: 19). 3. In terms of scientific proof, there is the entire question of natural law. The world is held together by a series of laws that never seem to change. They are regular and can be seen throughout nature, from its macro to its micro level. The Ã¢â¬Å"sensateÃ¢â¬ part of nature, logically, is anterior to the laws that allow it to exist. Hence, the laws of nature had to have come first, and are the form within which the sensate part of nature functions. Hence, an entity must exist that is capable of creating natural laws within which all created being can function in a regular and logical manner. Only God can be the cause of such things (Copleston, . 2006, 518). 4. The Russian philosopher Vladimir Solovyev uses the critique of nominalism to prove the existence of God in his Lectures on Godmanhood. First, the idea of empiricism is faulty since no real individuals exist (only God has this quality, but this is putting the cart before the horse). The objects seen in daily experience are themselves not particulars, but universals, ultimately reducible to pulses of energy. Force is the ultimate reality of being in terms of metaphysics. Hence, the empirical approach to the world is arbitrary, since the particulars we take for granted are in fact huge and complex collections of force and energy that appear to the senses as colors, sounds, textures, etc. Hence, energy is the source of being, and hence, retain the ontological status as universals. But this can not be sufficient, since the universal nature of forces must be accounted for. And this accounting can only be an entity powerful enough to have first created these forces that ultimately would register in human senses as objects, seemingly solid and singular, but in truth, complex and made up of universals (and in fact, representing universals in themselves). But this ultimately spiritual reality must have an equally spiritual cause, that is God. In other words, as the empirical qualities of objects exist only in the mind, the ultimate reality of the world is to be found in universals, and hence, the world of spirit. But all spiritual objects must have a cause that is equally creative and powerful (Solovyev, 1948: 60-63). 5. SpinozaÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of God is slightly different from the Christian view, but not entirely dissimilar. Spinoza argues for a single entity, Substance, that is the ultimate basis for all sensate objects. Substance is God, the ultimate basis (avoiding the word Ã¢â¬Å"causeÃ¢â¬ here) for all change and movement. Logically, there is only one ultimate Substance since there is no real reason for positing and more than one entity that, itself, can survive all change, but is not available to the senses. SpinozaÃ¢â¬â¢s Substance is not something that can be apprehended by senses, but only by the mind, and hence, is a spiritual being. While many writers have broken their backs trying to hold that nature is God for Spinoza, there is no reason to hold this: God is what is behind nature and is the ultimate basis for all being. Spinoza is not a pantheist, as nearly all commentators hold. Spinoza held that all change needs a basis, something that does not change. That which we see as changing is the modes of existence, the sensate objects in space and time (or mind and body). All of these sensate things can be reduced to that which is extended and that which is mental, ultimately one thing seen from two different points of view. But these two are merely two available modes for human comprehension of an infinite object that never changes, but is at the root of change, its basis, and that is Substance, or God, an infinite being who lies at the root of all change and the laws that govern change. It itself, does not change, but contains infinite attributes that only appear incompletely to human beings under two attributes only. Spinoza does not hold that there needs to be a cause of all things, but he does hold that there needs to be a basis of all things, that this is God (Della Rocca, 2008, 42-48) 6. The last proof or vision of God is to be found in Apostolos Makrakis, the little known 19th century Greek metaphysician. He was a Christian rationalist who held that Descartes butchered his own method. Makrakis holds that one can begin with Descartes ontological doubt. But the conclusion to this doubt, cogito ergo sum, is an arbitrary end point. When I engage in methodological doubt, I come up with several conclusions: first, the doubter exists, second, that the doubter is not the cause of his own existence, and third, that God exists necessarily. All of this derives from the single act of cognition: it is the true unpacking of the cogito. Since if the cogito is true, than the other propositions are equally true at the same time, known intuitively. Since the cogito is not self-created, then the outside world and God must exist necessarily in the same act of cognition as the original cogito. If one must strip away the outside world in order to reach the cogito, than the outside world is real, since in removing it, one reaches the truth of existence. The outside world cannot be a phantom then, if the doubter is not self-created. Something needed to have created and sustained the doubter, and this is as certain as the cogito itself. But since that outside world itself is not self-created (in other words, that the outside world does not know itself through itself, but through another), than God necessarily exists, and again, as true as the cogito itself. Hence, the cogito really says: I exist, the outside world exists, God exists, all at the same time all in the same act of cognition since the cogito itself implies it (Makrakis, 1956, 42-43). Again, none of these proofs are final, but the same can be said for all logic and science. But these do who that reason assents to the existence of God as infinite and all powerful. SpinozaÃ¢â¬â¢s approach is the most interesting, since it is compatible with mechanistic science, but holds that such science necessarily needs a basis for action, and this is Substance. The argument #3 above is also very difficult to refute, since one cannot hold to an ordered universe without holding to natural law, and if that, than the cause of natural law itself. If that is denied, then one is in the unenviable position of trying to argue that the material objects of nature can and did exist without a law to govern their actions. Hence, evolution is impossible. Natural laws (and a lawgiver) had to be before the actual sensate part of creation. But this, in an odd way, is very similar to the argument of Spinoza. It seems that science itself cannot function without recognizing natural law and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a priori existence with respect to the objects of science themselves. Bibliography: Owens, Joseph (1980) Thomas Aquinas on the Existence of God. SUNY Press Augustine (1996) Ã¢â¬Å"On The Free Choice of the WillÃ¢â¬ Readings in Medieval Philosophy. Ed. Andrew Schoedinger. Oxford. 3-24 Copleston, Frederick (2006) History of Philosophy: Medieval Philosophy. Continuum International. Solovyev, Vladimir (1948) Lectures on Godmanhood. Lindisfarne Press (this is sometimes called Lectures on Divine Humanity) Della Rocca, Michael (2008) Spinoza. Taylor and Francis Makrakis, Apostolos (1956) Ã¢â¬Å"The Tree of Life. Ã¢â¬ in Foundations of Philosophy. Chicago, OCES. 1-104
Monday, September 16, 2019
The purpose of this essay is to research the possible usage of web 2.0 engineerings as a larning tool in higher instruction, to set up what schemes should be used to maximise the possible benefits of web 2.0.I will analyze some instances to analyse the web 2.0 schemes which have been taken in instruction and acquisition. In peculiar, I will turn to the strategic deductions of web 2.0 engineerings in back uping pupil acquisition.IntroductionThe nature of instruction and acquisition has ever been linked with the nature of the engineering used in any historical period. In the age of orality or pre authorship, instruction was preponderantly unwritten and address was the lone manner of communicating. As people moved from orality to composing civilization, their thought created civilizations with alone features that were different from orality civilization ( Ong 1982 ) .In the age of print civilization, cognition was obtained and disseminated easy utilizing engineering. The handiness of in formation in the print civilization has led to progresss in topics such as scientific discipline as bookmans were able to portion their information.The technological developments of the industrial revolution besides changed the creative activity and airing of cognition as instructors used the printed stuffs and text editions to reassign cognition and information to a group of scholars. Ong ( 1982 ) separate the primary unwritten civilization ( public communicating and speaking ) from Ã¢â¬Ësecondary Ã¢â¬Ë orality civilization which developed by communicating media such as Radio which accentnate sound. The secondary orality includes elements from both the authorship and the orality civilization. He states that secondary orality civilization are empathic, foster a strong sense of rank in a group, and unite people in groups whereas composing promotes distance between readers and writers. Therefore, secondary orality is a societal manner of understanding the sentiments of others thro ugh duologue and edifice relationships which are different from print civilization which isolates people. A theoretical account of secondary orality can be presented in instruction and larning utilizing web 2.0 tools.This provides chance to incorporate some facets of authorship and unwritten features utilizing web 2.0 technologies.Web 2.0 engineerings have many features of secondary orality which includes the treatments about the subjects of concerns which are close to the human life and through duologue and interactions pupils and instructors are able to portion their sentiments.For illustration, Downes ( 2004 ) implemented web 2.0 schemes to advance communicating and sharing cognition among pupils. He integrated some facets of authorship and unwritten features in his instruction through web logs and supply chances for pupils to non merely use information but besides create and portion content. First, he created a web log to print information and supply resources for pupils which a re similar to textbooks that have authorization and ownership on printing information ( composing and print civilization ) . Second, he besides used web logs to supply the chance for pupils to discourse about specific subjects and range to collective understanding which is similar to secondary orality civilization in which pupils were able to prosecute in conversation and portion their sentiments. Web 2.0 has the possible to integrate some facets of authorship and orality activities in order to heighten acquisition and instruction However, despite many benefits of web 2.0 in instruction, a figure of surveies provide grounds in which instructors failed to ease active interaction among pupils ( eg Lankshear & A ; Knobel,2003 ) . Therefore, it appears apprehensible that successful usage of web 2.0 engineerings require schemes in order to take advantages of these tools.Potential benefits of web 2.0 engineeringsMcClintock ( 1992, p42 ) argues that the print system has dominated instructi on for the past five centuries and the physical nature of books Ã¢â¬Ënecessarily influences the manner that pedagogues organise education'.Ong ( 1982 ) states that although the instruction has been deeply affected by print civilization but the coming of electronic communicating that introduce a secondary orality have a profound on instruction. Similarly, McLuhan ( 1957 ) argues that the development of communicating tools would transform formal instruction. However, such anticipations about the transmutation potency of engineering have failed to come true. Cuban ( 1993 ) argues that many educational claims were made for each new engineering and later each claim was disproved by new developments. Cuban states that the engineering has been ignored by many instructors despite extended investing in engineering. Furthermore, he provides two grounds why engineering has non changed the instruction. Firse, cultural beliefs sing instruction and acquisition, 2nd, the print paradigm of the 19 th century has shaped the instruction. However, despite important investings in ICT in instruction in last 10 old ages, it had a small impact in educational patterns. This was in portion due to confusion about why we want to utilize ICT, and what we want to accomplish, and how we want to utilize ICT with respect to limitations exists in instruction. As Cloke ( 2001, p8 ) states Ã¢â¬ teachers are being encouraged to learn old cognition with new engineerings Ã¢â¬ . However, implementing web 2.0 engineerings require schemes in order to advance instruction and acquisition. Richardson ( 2004 ) implemented web 2.0 schemes in his instruction and acquisition to promote pupils to prosecute in an on-line treatment utilizing web log engineering. He besides provided existent activities in order to advance sharing cognition among pupils and teachers.He invited the parents and writers to portion and take part in the treatment of Ã¢â¬ËThe Secret Life of Bees Ã¢â¬Ë . He found that web logs enable pupils to prosecute in conversat ion, think more critically, reflect on their acquisition and construct their relationships with equals and instructors ( Richardson, 2006 ) . Richardson besides found that web logs helped loath pupils to portion their sentiments in category, and integrated in the acquisition community. Therefore, to advancing communicating and sharing cognition among pupils, instructors need to implement schemes in order to promote pupils to take part in collaborative activities.Lifelong acquisition and web 2.0 engineeringThe possible benefits of web 2.0 engineerings lie in their capacity to ease coaction, connect instructors, pupils, and experts together to portion their cognition. The European committee ( 2006 ) supply a set of grounds for utilizing information engineering in instruction in a manner that encourage usage of web 2.0 engineerings. They province that the universities need to portion excellence in research and instruction and supply sufficient entree to resources. Web 2.0 engineerings provide the chance for pedagogues to work collaboratively careless of geographical boundaries and supply entree to a huge scope of resources which support life long larning. It besides allows users to work collaboratively and portion their cognition. There is a important accent on educational policy in back uping womb-to-tomb acquisition. Brophy, Craven and fisher ( 1998 ) specify the construct of womb-to-tomb acquisition as follows Ã¢â¬Å" life long acquisition is a deliberate, patterned advance throughout the life of an person, where the initial acquisition of cognition and accomplishments is reviewed and upgraded continuously, to run into challenges set by an of all time altering society Ã¢â¬ ( p.1 ) . It is hence clear that life long learning requires the development of cognition, accomplishments, and values throughout our life. These accomplishments and competences can be achieved through coaction and sharing our experiences and cognition. Delors ( 1996 ) identified Ã¢â¬Å" four pillars of womb-to-tomb acquisition: acquisition to cognize, larning to make, larning to populate together, and larning to be Ã¢â¬Å" ( p.37 ) . He emphasises on larning to populate together as the foundation of instruction and discourse that by working together we can understand the sentiments of others and portion our jobs and involvements, develop our communicating, societal accomplishments, and critical thought and take the personal duty for our ends and larning. To advance life long acquisition, pupils, and instructors need to hold sufficient and easy entree to resources, being collaborative and being able to build and portion their cognition. Wanger ( 2004 ) argues that there are a demand for cognition creative activity and sharing through duologue with inquiries and replies. Furthermore, he distinguishes between demands of cognition users and cognition Godheads. He demonstrates that in building cognition, users need to happen relevant information, obtain the cognition, a nd happen good quality of the beginnings. In footings of demands of cognition Godheads. He states that new cognition should be created, collected and disseminated as rapidly possible to work out jobs because cognition alteration quickly. Therefore, web 2.0 have the capacity to make, gaining control and portion our cognition. Will Richardson ( 2006, weblog ) writes: Ã¢â¬Å" The good intelligence for all of us is that today, anyone can go a womb-to-tomb scholar. ( Yes, even you. ) These engineerings are user friendly in a manner that engineerings have non been in the yesteryear. You can be up and blogging in proceedingss, redacting wikis in seconds, doing podcasts in, well, less clip than you Ã¢â¬Ëd believe. It Ã¢â¬Ës non hard at all to be an active subscriber in this society of writing we are constructingÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å" ( n.p ) .These surveies indicate that web 2.0 engineering provide chance for people to be womb-to-tomb scholars and maintain up to day of the month with developme nts in subjects of their involvements. In peculiar, web 2.0 tools can back up larning and professional development in a life long learning by offering entree to a huge assortment of larning content that can supplement initial preparation. Learning is non merely about utilizing new tools to entree information and sharing our cognition, it is besides about utilizing the engineering to develop our acquisition and work out jobs. However, the chief challenge for instruction is non engineering ; it is our cultural and pedagogical beliefs. The chief biggest challenges in utilizing web 2.0 engineering harmonizing to Becta Ã¢â¬Ës web 2.0 researches ( 2008 ) is how to promote pupils to prosecute actively in making and sharing cognition. The undermentioned subdivision provides an overview on web 2.0 schemes which have been taken at universities to ease acquisition.Case surveies and Web 2.0 schemesFranklin and Harmelen ( 2007 ) look into the usage of a scope of societal package tools in highe r instruction analyzing the schemes which have been taken in implementing web 2.0 at four UK universities: Warwick, Leeds, Brighton, and Edinburgh.They besides identified several jobs and issues associated with implementing web 2.0 engineerings. The University of Brigton implemented web 2.0 schemes to advance societal and community webs among pupils and instructors. One of the chief findings was that part of professionals to larning and learning were slow. They besides found that there were some inappropriate stations among pupils which have been disappeared due to peer force per unit area. The University of Edinburgh implemented web 2.0 schemes such as Ã¢â¬Å" utilizing web logs and RSS provenders alternatively of newssheets, utilizing societal bookmarking to ease the direction of class cubic decimeter reading lists in a collaborative manner and supplying podcasts as portion of support stuffs Ã¢â¬Å" ( p.12 ) .The university high spots the importance of run intoing demands of pupils instead than choosing best tools. The Warwick University besides implemented web log engineering to heighten instruction and acquisition. One of the chief findings was that web logs have positively changed societal interaction among pupils and staff but instructors were a spot slow on incorporating the tools into their instruction. Some pupils used web log for societal activities and other pupils used web logs for Ã¢â¬Å" academic authorship such as book reviews Ã¢â¬Å" ( P.9 ) .John Dale, Head of IT service in Warwick Ã¢â¬Ës university in Guardian article ( 2005 ) states that the intent for implementing web 2.0 tools were Ã¢â¬Ëself printing for all Ã¢â¬Ë . Furthermore, John states that we need to be Ã¢â¬ open head about web logs.There is tonss of other ways of back uping contemplation and personal development, or community and coaction Ã¢â¬ ( n.p ) . Therefore, instructors Ã¢â¬Ë motive and pedagogical beliefs about the demands of pupils may act upon the manner they choose and design the content. A figur e of surveies have shown that the successful execution of educational engineerings depends on the attitudes of pedagogues, who make up one's mind how to utilize engineering in their schoolroom. Downes ( 2005 ) as cited in Franklin & A ; Harmelen ( 2007 ) states that Ã¢â¬Å" acquisition is characterised non merely by greater liberty for the scholar, but besides a greater accent on active acquisition with creative activity, communicating and engagement playing cardinal functions, and on altering functions for the instructor, so even a prostration of the differentiation between instructors and pupil together Ã¢â¬ . Therefore, instructors have of import function to supply picks that allow pupils develop their ain involvements. The University of Leeds implemented web 2.0 schemes to in promote instruction and larning.They provide developing Sessionss and workshops for back uping pupils and instructors. This scheme helped instructors to concentrate more on new ways of instruction and presenting information to pupils. It besides helped pupils to go familar with web 2.0 functionality before get downing the class. In a degree class at the section of classics at the University of Leeds, Green ( 2009 ) used the wiki engineering in his ancient Roman faith faculty to affect pupils in the creative activity of the stuffs they study in the schoolroom, and go more active participants in their group undertaking. He was positive about utilizing the wiki in-group undertaking and identified several benefits of utilizing the wiki. These benefits include: edifice a acquisition community ; constructing a deeper apprehension of the class, flexibleness in footings of location in which everyone can work at any clip and any topographic point and easy to put up and run the collaborative undertaking. Of the possible advantages listed supra, the coach considers measuring the single part of pupil in-group undertaking as a job in his faculty. Another job was that the member of the groups had entree to their ain site, and they did non lend to the work of other groups. The coach besides was concerned about plagiarism i n which leting pupils to reexamine the work of other groups may be alluring pupils to take the thoughts of other groups, peculiarly for the Roman Religion undertaking where there was no secondary literature. Web 2.0 engineering demand a alteration in our attitudes toward the content, authorization of beginning and making materials.Web 2.0 engineering is a tool that aid scholars express their thoughts, analyze information, think critically and through these procedure pupils are able to acknowledge undependable information..Web 2.0 provide chance for pupils to portion their sentiments and do determination together about the credibleness of information and right of first publication stuffs.On the other manus, some argue that there is no cardinal editor in printing content in web logs and wikis and therefore they can non be considered believable because it published by people which there are no control over contents ( eg Bolous, 2006 ) .The function of instructors in web 2.0 engineeringAugar, N.Raitman, R.Zhou, W ( 2004 ) investigated the ways in which societal package applications used in Deakin University, Australia. The Deakin University adopted the successful iceboat exercising to the wi ki engineering to ease communicating and coaction among pupils every bit good as aid pupils to acquire used to the web 2.0 engineering before the collaborative authorship undertakings start. The consequences of a study by Deakin University in 2003 shows that the deficiency of interaction with equals and teachers were the chief jobs in larning online. Therefore, the university implemented web 2.0 schemes to develop societal interaction and collaborative accomplishments among ICT pupils. Augar et Al ( 2004 ) reported that the pupils participated in an iceboat activity and introduced themselves to one another by posting their inquiries and replies. Students shared their thoughts with other groups through duologue with inquiries and reply. The benefits of iceboat activity harmonizing to Augar achieved through the engagement in and usage of wikis.The benefits included interaction and facilitation of communicating with equals and doing the work easily. As discussed by Augar et Al ( 2004 ) , the pupils were more interested in inquiries related to the linguistic communication and the cultural background of one another and from this sharing experience, pupils were able to do new friends. Based on the earlier work of Freire on critical teaching method, Shor ( 1993 ) province that instructors need to `pose jobs derived from pupil life, societal issues, and academic topics, in a reciprocally created dialogueaÃâ Ã ¦inviting pupils to believe critically about capable matteraÃâ Ã ¦ the acquisition procedure itself, and their society` ( p.25 ) Therefore, the type of activity is of import to prosecute pupils to join forces with one another. As Bower and Woo ( 2006 ) found, there is a correlativity between the types of activities with collaborative acquisition. Forte and Bruckman Ã¢â¬Ës ( 2006 ) findings confirm Bower Ã¢â¬Ës research by showing that reliable undertakings are of import in prosecuting pupils to work collaboratively and lend to the work of their peers.Therefore, instructors have of import function to plan activities that encourage coaction and experimentation. The coachs besides took several schemes to guarantee security of the wiki content. First, they set simple usage guidelines within posting page and every times pupils made a station on the wiki, the guidelines appeared on their page. Second, they monitored the wiki entree and redacting content to forestall pupils from posting knowing abuse and omission. The coachs use the wiki engineering for posting stuffs and information and leave messages to assist pupils to read and portion their thoughts. This attack helps to make full the spread of larning between pupils by supplying on-line resources and information. Students need equal information for sharing and edifice cognition ( Wanger 2004 ) . Coachs besides presented themselves socially into group of pupils through posting their images on the wiki sites.This scheme helped pupils to add their image to user page and go more motivated to take part in utilizing wiki technology.The nature of wikis besides provide chance for coachs to supervise how frequently participants see a wiki system, whether they read the information and whether they are lending on a peculiar topic.They besides introduce the regulations for making and redacting content and coaction. Harmonizing to, Johnson and Smith ( 1991 ) , the coachs have of import function in making the class conditions, set uping an online community and engage pupils to be active participants. It is of import that instructors set regulations for illustration, pupil must post their thoughts on the group before the group begin work on a collaborative activity. Johnson farther province that coachs need to supply equal resources and monitor coaction among pupils and give remarks in ord er to steer students.They besides province that quality such as feedback and trust are of import in collaborative activities and promoting pupils to take part. Teachers need schemes to assist scholars to pass on and prosecute more efficaciously with their equals. For illustration instructors need to keep effectual relationships with pupils to prosecute them in coaction and making content. They besides need to affect in treatments with pupils. One of the indispensable function of instructors in the 21 century is to fix scholars to take part in socially organised activities.The function of instructors is of import in order to promote pupils to reflect on their ain and their equals by inquiring inquiries that seek grounds and grounds. Teachers besides need to measure and supervise single pupils and supply feedback to them. Web 2.0 requires new schemes for measuring collaborative acquisition. Teachers besides need to offer pupil a credit/ class for their part. This may assist pupils to take part and besides curtail the possibility of one individual making all the work on the group. These schemes are of import because some pupils may make non desire to portion their work with others.Raman and Ryan ( 2005 ) states that a scaling policy is of import when utilizing engineering to make cognition and promote pupils to take part. Therefore, web 2.0 engineering requires new schemes for measuring pupils. Using web 2.0 besides require a alteration in function of instructors from authorization to steer and ease acquisition. Teachers need to travel from the conventional instruction methods to methods that engage pupils in activities that create new cognition. The function of pupils have to alter from being a inactive dependant scholar to an active and independent scholar. With the web 2.0 engineering, pupils need to be active in making and sharing content with collaborative accomplishments instead than devouring information. They have to take duty for their work and reflect on their acquisition every bit good as assist each other to develop their acquisition by sharing their cognition. Deci and Ryan ( 2002 ) province that to heighten the fulfilment of liberty in scholars, it is of import to give them chances for pick, executing personal ends, values and inspiration. Implementing such attack is non easy. This is because instruction system is capable to many external force per unit areas and they are non able to fulfill the demands of pupils. The instance surveies demonstrate that Webs 2.0 have great potency for back uping acquisition. In peculiar, web 2.0 provides the chance for making and sharing cognition. It besides allows users to prosecute in conversation and support each other. web 2.0 besides support personalization. Social package applications can be used as a tool for sharing cognition and personal learning.For illustration, web logs can be used as an single home page for hive awaying personal resources and societal activities. However, despite many benefits of web 2.0 engineerings in instruction, the instance surveies indicate that a figure of instructors failed to ease active interaction among students.Pelgrum ( 2003 ) argue that a assortment of alterations must be implemented to optimise instructors use of information communicating engineering: alterations in teaching method, redesigning the appraisal, supplying chance for liberty, supplying instructors with sufficient support, supplying equal clip for instructors to develop new accomplishments and research the integrating of ICT into their instruction patterns, supplying formal and informal communities of pattern and equal webs. However, implementing web 2.0 engineerings depends on following conditions: Web 2.0 functionality, their fittingness for peculiar activities Ã¢â¬â tantrum for the purpose- and the users Ã¢â¬Ë cognition of the tools used. ( B ) the beliefs and attitudes toward web 2.0 engineerings ( C ) The users Ã¢â¬Ë cognition and accomplishments in making and sharing cognition ( D ) supplying support and appropriate guidelines for utilizing web 2.0 engineerings and the function of instructors and their abilities to promote pupils to make and portion their cognition. ( E ) A civilization of openness( A ) Web 2.0 FunctionalityThe university of Wolverhampton implemented the web 2.0 engineering in larning resource Centre to maintain pupils and academic staff up to day of the month with electronic resources every bit good as portion their thoughts together through web log engineering.One of the chief findings in the rating of the web 2.0 engineering harmonizing to Jo Alcock, Wolverhampton Ã¢â¬Ë s Learning resource Librarian, was the deficiency of consciousness and uncertainness about utilizing web 2.0 engineering. He says that Ã¢â¬ there is a demand for protagonism of the benefits Ã¢â¬ . He states that one of the barriers in utilizing web 2.0 is the opposition to alter, peculiarly among senior directors. Furthermore, he explains that implementing web 2.0 require a alteration in our civilization. Web 2.0 engineerings require a great clip to research the potency of web 2.0 in advancing instruction and acquisition. Pelgrum ( 2003 ) states that equal clip are needed for instructors to develop new accomplishments. The motive of instructors to pass clip beyond the call of responsibility is of import in utilizing engineering. Teachers have of import function to make activities to acquire pupils think about benefits of web 2.0 engineering. A figure of surveies indicate that there is correlativity between sensed easiness of usage & A ; percieved utility and usage of engineerin g ( eg Davis 1989 ) . Therefore, if instructors perceive that web 2.0 engineerings are good for advancing pupils Ã¢â¬Ë acquisition, they are likely to utilize them in their schoolroom. Furthermore, the University of Warwick found that some pupils used the web log for societal activity while others used it for academic authorship. The pupils used the web log in different ways to run into their demands. Therefore, web 2.0 support diverse demands of personal acquisition. This different utilizations of web logs supports the possible benefits of utilizing web logs as a tool for personal acquisition.( B ) Beliefs and attitudesBrown and Adle ( 2008 ) argue that web 2.0 engineering requires a displacement in attitude towards cognition building and acquisition among the university faculty.There are some factors, which might promote and actuate instructors: providing resources for instructors to utilize the tools, take parting on a regular basis in professional interaction and activities and back uping societal package activities. Harmonizing to societal cognitive theory ( Bandura, 2001 ) , the encouragement and positive feedback from others can act upon the person Ã¢â¬Ës belief refering the ability to success on specific undertakings. Furthermore, he states that anterior experience is a cardinal factor in utilizing technology.Teachers who knows little about utilizing societal package applications unlikely to utilize them. On the other manus, instructors who have experience in utilizing the tools are likely to utilize them.( C ) Skills and cognitionThe instance surveies indicate that participants Ã¢â¬Ë cognition and accomplishments are of import in the success of collaborative activities facilitated by web 2.0. Dillenbourg ( 1999 ) identified four attacks which can increase interaction among scholars. First, he argues that planing an appropriate status is of import to develop interaction among scholars, and every state of affairs requires different status. For illustration, Ã¢â¬Ëshould the instructor organise pupils into groups or allow pupils themselves get into groups Ã¢â¬Ë depend on different state of affairs and careful programs. Second, in a collaborative acquisition, it is of import for instructors to put up regulations for interaction for illustration Ã¢â¬Ëeverybody in the group should give his or her sentiment Ã¢â¬Ë . Third, instructors need to supervise the interaction between pupils and supply remarks, Fourth, the instructors need to specify a clear specification of functions within coaction activities. Although the regulations and conditions are of import in order to develop interaction among scholars, single members of groups should larn and understand the demand of working in a group in order to finish their undertakings.Five hundred Culture of opennessThe success of web 2.0 engineering in instruction requires profound alterations in civilization and above all the purpose of instruction. Implementing web 2.0 engineerings besides depends on coaction and showing our thoughts freely without control. This besides requires societal encouragements and a civilization of working openly that has strategic benefits in instruction and acquisition.DecisionThis survey uses the illustrations of wiki and web log engineering to understand how it could be used to ease acquisition among pupils. Specifically, I study a figure of instances to understand how web 2.0 schemes can be used to back up larning in academic scenes. .The initial findings suggest that web 2.0 engineering support coaction and sharing cognition. However, implementing web 2.0 engineerings in instruction demand ( a ) careful analysis of user demands for web 2.0 engineering, ( B ) buttocks what teachers do, why do, and how they do it, ( C ) assess what instructors want to accomplish and ( D ) assess how they may be able to accomplish their aims utilizing web 2.0 engineering. Therefore, utilizing web 2.0 engineerings requires conditions: new signifiers of teaching method in instruction and acquisition, promoting coaction, consistently measuring pupils Ã¢â¬Ë demands and activities. A figure of surveies have reported that some instruct ors encountered with many jobs in incorporating web 2.0 engineerings in their instruction and acquisition. These jobs include minimum communicating, hapless quality contemplation on the class stuffs and so on. In reexamining many failed reform attempts in instruction, fullan ( 1993 ) concluded that the hardest job is to construct successful coaction among instructors, pupils and other professionals.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
ACC201 Ã¢â¬ ¦ STUDY GUIDE for TEST ONE (Chapters 1, 2, 3) Test #1 will consist of 50-60 of the questions below. (Finding the Ã¢â¬Å"answersÃ¢â¬ to these questions is part of the review) True or False 1. Owner's equity represents the amount of assets that can be claimed by creditors. 2. The right-hand side of an account is always the increase side. 3. A ledger is a chronological record of a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s transactions. 4. The chart of accounts proves that all transactions were correctly journalized and posted. 5. In accrual-basis of accounting, revenues are recorded when a service is performed. . Current liabilities are expected to be paid off or eliminated in the next 12 months. [pic] 7. Each time a business records revenue the account Cash is increased. 8. Accumulated depreciation of an asset Ã¢â¬â its depreciation expense = book value. 9. Financial accounting provides information for people inside the company while managerial accounting focuses on information for people o utside the company. 10. Every adjusting entry affects one account on the income statement and one account on the balance sheet. 11. Financial statements will be inaccurate if they are prepared before the djusting entries are completed. 12. The Ã¢â¬Å"current ratioÃ¢â¬ is calculated by dividing the Total Assets by Total Liabilities. 13. During the closing process, ALL revenue and expense accounts are closed. 14. Ã¢â¬Å"LiquidityÃ¢â¬ is a measure of how quickly an asset can be converted into cash. 15. Revenues and expenses are also classified as Ã¢â¬Å"currentÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"long-termÃ¢â¬ on a classified Income Statement. 16. Cash-basis accounting results in a more accurate measurement of net income than does the accrual basis of accounting. 17. Financial statements will be inaccurate if they are prepared before the adjusting entries are completed. 8. Risk is the amount of uncertainty about the return we expect to earn in the future. 19. Accounting records are also referred to as the books. 20. Source documents provide evidence of business transactions and are the basis for accounting entries. 21. As prepaid expenses are used up, the costs of these assets become expenses 22. An account balance is the difference between the debits and credits for an account including any beginning balance. 23. The debt ratio reflects the risk of a company to both its owners and creditors. 24.The higher the debt ratio, the higher risk of a company not being able to meet its obligations. 25. The debt ratio is calculated by dividing total assets by total liabilities. 26. A company that finances a relatively large portion of its assets with liabilities is said to have a high degree of financial leverage. 27. If a company is highly leveraged, this means that it has relatively low risk of not being able to repay its debt. 28. A company's fiscal year must correspond with the calendar year. 29. Adjusting entries are made after the preparation of financial statements. 30.Curren t assets and current liabilities are expected to be used up or come due within one year or the company's operating cycle whichever is longer. 31. For a corporation, the equity section is divided into two main accounts: Common Stock and Retained Earnings. 32. Profit margin can also be called return on sales. 33. The Income Summary account is closed to the retained earnings account. 34. The primary objective of financial accounting is: A. To serve the decision-making needs of internal users B. To provide financial statements to help external users analyze and interpret an organization's activities C.To monitor and control company activities D. To provide information on both the costs and benefits of managing products and services 35. A corporation: A. Is a legal entity separate and distinct from its owners B. Must have many owners C. Has shareholders who have unlimited liability for the acts of the corporation D. Does not have to pay taxes 36. Net Income: A. Decreases equity B. Equals assets minus liabilities C. Is the excess of revenues over expenses D. Represents the owners' claims against assets 37. Return on assets is: A. Also called rate of return B.Computed by dividing net income by beginning assets plus ending assets divided by two C. Computed by multiplying net income by total assets D. Used in helping evaluate expenses 38. Risk is: A. Net income divided by average total assets B. The reward for investment C. The uncertainty about the expected return that will be earned from an investment D. Unrelated to expected return 39. The statement of retained earnings: A. Reports how retained earnings changes at a point in time B. Reports how retained earnings changes over a period of time C.Reports on cash flows for operating, financing and investing activities over a period of time D. Reports on amounts for assets, liabilities and equity at a point in time 40. A written promise to pay a definite sum of money on a specific future date is a(n):Ã A. Unearned rev enue B. Credit account C. Note payable D. Account receivable 41. On September 30, the Cash account of Value Company had a normal balance of $5,000. During September, the account was debited for a total of $12,200 and credited for a total of $11,500. What was the balance in the Cash account at the beginning of September? A. $4,300 debit balance B. a $4,300 credit balance C. a $5,700 debit balance D. a $5,700 credit balance 42. The Fireside Country Inn is a very popular destination for tourists. The Inn requires guests to make reservations at least two months in advance of their stay. A twenty percent down payment is required at the time the reservation is made. When should this inn recognize room rental revenue? A. On the date the reservation is received B. On the date the money for the reservation is received C. On the date the guests stay in the inn D. On the date the guests pay the remaining eighty percent due 3. Stride Rite has total assets of $425 million. Its total liabilities are $110 million. Its equity is $315 million. Calculate the debt ratio. A. 38. 6% B. 13. 4% C. 34. 9% D. 25. 9% 44. Listed below are two pieces of information. Where is the best place to locate this information, in the journal or the ledger? Details of a transaction which took place on October 3rd All of the sales activity which took place during the current monthÃ A. 1. Journal 2. Journal B. 1. Journal 2. Ledger C. 1. Ledger 2. Journal D. This information is only available on the financial statements 5. Interim financial statements refer to financial reports:Ã A. That cover less than one year, usually spanning one, three or six-month periods B. That are prepared before any adjustments have been recorded C. That show the assets above the liabilities and the liabilities above the equity D. Where revenues are reported on the income statement when cash is received and expenses are reported when cash is paid 46. Profit margin is defined as: A. Revenues divided by net sales B. Net income divided by net sales C. Net income divided by assets D.Assets divided by net sale 47. A company earned $2,000 in net income for October. Its net sales for October were $10,000. Its profit margin is:Ã A. 2% B. 20% C. 200% D. 500% 48. Which of these shows a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial position as of a specific date? A. Income StatementC. Statement of Owners Equity B. Balance Sheet D. Chart of Accounts 49. GAAP stands for: A. generally accepted auditing practices B. generally accrued auditing procedures C. generally accrued accounting principles D. generally accepted accounting principles 50. Liabilities are: xpenses incurred by the business increases in owner's equity earned by delivering goods or services economic resources of a business creditors claims to the business's assets 51. Which of these have a remaining balance after the closing process is completed ? A. service revenueC. accumulated depreciation. B withdrawalsD. depreciation expense. 52. A $250 payment on account was recorded as a debit to accounts receivable and a credit to accounts payable. This error will cause: A. owner's equity to be overstated B. accounts payable to be understated C. ash to be understated D. accounts receivable to be overstated 53. Receiving a payment from a customer on account would: A. have no effect on total assets or owner's equity Ã B. increase net income and decrease liabilities C. increase both assets and owner's equity D. decrease liabilities and increase owner's equity 54. The entry for depreciation has what effect on the financial statements: A. increases expenses and decreases assets B. decreases net income and increases assets C. increases assets and decreases liabilities D. decreases assets and increases liabilities 5. Equipment with a cost of $120,000 has a useful life of 4 years and no salvage value. Using straight-line depreciation, what is the book value after 1 year? A. $28,750C. $103,000 B. $86,250 D. $ 38,333 56. The balance in accumulated depre ciation after adjustment represents: A. a contra liability on the balance sheet B. a contra asset on the balance sheet C. a liability on the balance sheet D. a contra account on the income statement 57. A list of all of the accounts (without balances) used by a business is called: A. trial BalanceC. account master B. hart of accountsD. adjusted trial balance 58. Which of these shows results of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations over a period of time? A. income statementC. statement of owners equity B. balance sheetD. chart of accounts 59. These Ã¢â¬Å"typesÃ¢â¬ of accounts appear on the Income Statement? A. assets and liabilities. C. all owners equity accounts B. revenues, expensesD. all accounts of a business appear 60. These Ã¢â¬Å"typesÃ¢â¬ of accounts appear on the Balance Sheet? A. assets and liabilities. C. all owners equity accounts B. revenues, expensesD. ll accounts of a business appear 61. If Assets = $150,000 and Liabilities = $60,000, Owners Equity = _____________. |a) $ 240,000 |c) $ 150,000 | |b) $ 90,000 |d) $ 210,000 | 62. A business bought land paying $100,000 (paying $25,000 cash and owing $75,000). The land had an asking price of $115,00 and an appraised value of $125,000. What amount should the business use to record the purchase in the accounting Ã¢â¬Å"booksÃ¢â¬ . a) $ 25,000 |c) $ 115,000 | |b) $ 100,000 |d) $ 125,000 | 63. In May a business had: Revenue of $15,000, Accounts Receivable of $25,000; Liabilities of $8,000; Expenses of $11,000 and a balance in the Cash account of $5,000. The Ã¢â¬Å"Net IncomeÃ¢â¬ (or net loss) for May was _______________. |a) $ 64,000 |c) $ 11,000 | |b) $ 16,000 |d) $ 4,000 | 4. Company buys Supplies paying $500 in Cash. Company buys more Supplies for $1,000, on account. Company pays $500 of the amount it owes for supplies. The balance in the Supplies account is: | a. $ 500 |c. $ 1,500 | |b. $ 1,000 |d. $ 2,000 | 65. The Ã¢â¬Å"accountingÃ¢â¬ term that refers to copying transaction information fro m the journal to the ledger is termed: |a. increase |c. ebit | | b. decrease |d. credit | 66. Unearned revenue is always a(n) ______________ type of account: |a) revenue. |c) owners equity. | |b) contra-revenue. |d) liability. | 67. Accrued expenses are expenses that have: |a) been paid. |c) not been paid nor incurred | |b) been incurred and paid. |d) not been paid but incurred | 68. Accrued revenue is which of the following? |a) Revenue that has been earned and collected. |b) Revenue that has been collected but not yet earned. | |c) Revenue that has been earned but not yet collected. | |d) Revenue that has not been collected or earned. | 69. On a classified balance sheet, assets that are expected to be converted to cash, sold, or consumed during the next 12 months are referred to as: |A. current assets. |C. leveraged assets. | |B. market assets. |D. liquid assets. | 70. What accounts may have balances (that are not -0-), on a post-closing trial balance? |A. assets, liabilities & r evenues. |C. revenues, expenses & capital | |B. ssets, liabilities & expenses |D. assets, liabilities & capital | 71. Which of these would have no effect on TOTAL assets or TOTAL liabilities? |a) payment of a liability |c) buying supplies on account | |b) payment of an expense |d) buying supplies and paying cash | 72. The accountant for BobCo did not make any adjusting entry for depreciation expense. What is the effect of this error on TOTAL liabilities? a) liabilities are understated |c) liabilities are overstated | |b) liabilities are not affected |d) I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a clue! | 73. Buying a $300,000 building by signing a $300,000 note payable results in: |a) owner's equity increasing. |c) no change to owner's equity. | |b) ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s equity decreasing. |d) no clue on this one either! | 74. The Ã¢â¬Å"Matching PrincipleÃ¢â¬ directs accountants to: |a) match total debits to the total credits. | |b) match Assets to the (Liabilities Ã¢â¬â Owners Equity). | |c) match expen ses against revenues of the period. |d) once again, I have no clue! | 75. A $75 payment for Rent Expense was mistakenly posted as a: debit to Supply Expense (the credit was correct). What is the impact on the Trial Balance |a) the credit total is off by $75. | |b) the debit total is off by $75. | |c) no impact on the Trial Balance | |d) nothing has changed Ã¢â¬â no clue! | 76. If a company is using the accrual method of accounting, when is revenue recorded? |a) when cash is received, regardless of when the work is done. | |b) when the work, or services are begun. |c) when the work, or services are completed. | |d) when the expenses to pay for the job, or services, are incurred. | 77. Assets are __________________________________________________________ 78. Liabilities are _______________________________________________________ 79. Equity is ____________________________________________________________ 80. Revenues are_________________________________________________________ 81. Ex penses are _________________________________________________________ 82. How do you INCREASE these accounts Ã¢â¬ ¦ by a DR (debit) or a CR (credit) ? ______ Assets ______ Expenses ______ Revenues _____ Liabilities ______ Capital ______ Withdrawals Unearned Accumulated ______ Revenue ______ Depreciation 83. Indicate whether these accounts appears on the: IS (Income Statement only), the BS (Balance Sheet only) or BOTH (Income Statement and Balance Sheet) ______ Cash ______ Furniture ______ Revenue ______ Supply ______ Accounts ______ Accounts Expense Payable Receivable Unearned Interest _____ Revenue ______ Revenue Definitions Ã¢â¬â matching 84. cost of assets or services used up or consumed to generate revenues. They decrease retained earnings. 85. resources generated from a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings activities. They increase retained earnings. . 86. Assets = Liabilities + Equity 87. the result when revenues are larger than expenses. 88. A company records the expenses incurred to generate the revenues reported. 89. Every business is accounted for separately from its owner or owners. Revenues LiabilitiesEquity ExpensesNet IncomeGAAP Net Loss AssetsAccounting equation 90.A list of all ledger accounts and includes an identification number assigned to each account (does NOT include account balances). 91. A record of increases and decreases in a specific asset, liability, equity, revenue or expense item. 92. The accounting Ã¢â¬Å"book of original entryÃ¢â¬ where transactions are first recorded in a chronological order. Identifies and describes transactions and events entering the accounting process (either in hard copy or electronic form). 93. A record containing all accounts used by a company, a collection of all accounts and their balances. Post from the journal to the __________. 4. A list of accounts, and their account identification numbers, (without any dollar amounts or balances) that may be used by a company. 95. The process of transferring journal en try information to the ledger. |A. Debit |F. Chart of Accounts | |B. Credit |G. Trial balance | |C. Account |H. Ledger (general ledger) | |D. Posting |I. Source documents | |E. Journal |J. Account Balance | 6. a method or technique of accounting that Ã¢â¬Å"recognizes revenues when cash is received and records expenses when cash is paidÃ¢â¬ . 97. this is Ã¢â¬Å"a list of accounts and balances prepared after adjustments (adjusting entries) are recordedÃ¢â¬ . 98. this is Ã¢â¬Å"the process of allocating the costs of these (plant) assets over their expected useful lifeÃ¢â¬ . 99. these are Ã¢â¬Å"costs that are incurred in a period but are both unpaid and unrecordedÃ¢â¬ . 100. an Ã¢â¬Å"account linked with another account, it has an opposite normal balance, and is reported as a subtraction from the other (linked) accountÃ¢â¬â¢s balanceÃ¢â¬ 01. this Ã¢â¬Å"refers to revenues earned in a period that are both unrecorded and not yet received in cash (or other assets)Ã¢â¬â¢ |A . Accrued Expenses |F. Contra Account | |B. Accrued Revenue |G. Cash Basis Accounting | |C. Depreciation |H. Unearned (deferred) Revenue | |D. Adjusting Entry |I.Prepaid (deferred) Expenses | |E. Adjusted Trial Balance |J. Matching Principle (expense recognition) | Journal Entries 102. Bill starts a business by investing $10,000 cash in the business. 103. The business completes work for a customer and collects $1,000 from him. 104. The business receives this monthÃ¢â¬â¢s phone bill in the amount of $ 100. The business will pay the bill NEXT month. 105. The business does work for a Customer and sends Joe a bill for $ 750. 106.On Jan 1, BobCo received $3,000 from a customer to provide landscape services for Jan, Feb and Mar. (BobCo made the correct entry on Jan 1 to record the receipt of the Cash). Prepare BobCoÃ¢â¬â¢s adjusting entry for JAN 31 107. BobCo pays Salaries of $5,000 per week. Mon, Tues, Wed are in JAN while Thurs and Fri fall into FEB. Prepare the adjusting entry a s of JAN 31 108. A machine was purchased for $24,000 on JAN 1. Its estimated useful life is 48 months. Prepare the entry for depreciation on JAN 31. 109. In JAN, interest revenue of $100 has been earned but not yet received. It will be received in MAY). Prepare the adjusting entry for JAN 31. 110. On JAN 1 the Supplies account balance was $3,000. On JAN 31 there were $ 1,000 of Supplies remaining (unused). Prepare the adjusting entry for JAN 31 111. On JAN 1 BobCo bought $500 in Supplies on account. On JAN 31 only $200 of the Supplies remain. Prepare the adjusting entry. 112. On JAN 1 BobCo. paid, in advance, $3,000 for 6 months of Insurance (Jan thru June) Prepare the adjusting entry for JAN 31. ONE MORE PAGE On the next page, IF you close ONLY the correct accounts, you will receive one bonus points. Adjusted Trial Balance |Debits |Credits | |Cash |$ 15,000 | | |Accounts Receivable |$ 6,000 | | |Unearned Revenue | |$ 1,000 | |Accounts Payable | |$ 2,500 | |Sales Revenue | |$ 11,000 | |Depreciation Expense |$ 2,000 | | |Rent Expense |$ 500 | | |Withdraws |$ 1,000 | | |Capital | |$ 10,000 | Note: Prepare the closing journal entries using whatever data above that you need.